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花木嫁接技術要點

進行花木嫁接,既可保持母本的優良特性,又可彌補花木某些部位的缺陷、滿足造型需要,還可大大縮短盆景的製作時間,被行家裏手廣泛採用。現將提高花木嫁接成活率的技術簡介如下:

    一、選准嫁接季節嫁接季節因嫁接所用接穗不同而異。枝接多在春季進行,一般以砧木樹液開始流動時為最佳;芽接在整個花木生長季節均可進行,以砧木皮層易剝離為最好。

    二、砧木和穗條的選擇與處理選親和力強的樹種作砧木砧木穗條的親和力要強,這是嫁接成活的前提和基礎。親和力不強,砧木和接穗之間產生癒合組織的能力弱,新的輸導組織難以形成,水分和營養物質運送不到位,則嫁接易失敗。因此,在生產中一般選擇本砧嫁接,除此之外,還選擇親和力較強的其他樹種作砧木,如選黑松作五針松的砧木,選桃、李作梅花的砧木,選水蠟、女貞作桂花的砧木等。如無其他要求,砧木選中幼齡為最好。因為在這個時期,它的生活力、生長勢強,易形成癒合組織。

    穗條的選擇與處理最好在生長旺盛、無病蟲害的中幼齡母樹上選擇健壯、生長勢強的枝條作穗條。進行芽接的,多使用當年生枝的新生芽,隨采隨接。也可用休眠期採集的一年生枝的芽進行芽接,但這種帶木質部的芽採集之後,必須在濕潤低溫的條件下保鮮。進行枝接的,則使用完全木質化或半木質化的枝條作接穗,隨采隨接。

    三、嚴格按嫁接要求操作在嫁接過程中要做到“快、平、准、緊”。“快”就是嫁接刀要鋒利,嫁接動作要敏捷,儘量縮短接穗削麵和砧木介面的晾曬時間;“平”就是接穗削麵和砧木介面要平滑,沒有凸凹處,以便二者能緊密結合;“准”就是在插入接穗時要將接穗和砧木之間的形成層對準,這一點是整個嫁接過程中的關鍵,形成層不對准,絕對不會成活;“緊”就是對砧穗二者的包紮要嚴緊,不得有鬆散現象,只有緊實了,才能形成癒合組織。

    四、創造條件,促進成活嫁接天氣以無風的晴天為最好。對有傷流的樹種(如李、桃)要在傷流少的時期嫁接,或採取在砧木基部切割木質部放水的辦法進行處理。對分泌脂類的樹種(如黑松)要避開樹脂分泌旺盛期,在樹脂分泌緩慢期進行嫁接,削穗時要用酒精擦去刀具上的松脂,並用40℃的溫水浸泡一下接穗基部,以免分泌的樹脂包裹削口,使形成層難以對接。對溫度、濕度要求高的樹種,採用溫室嫁接。

    五、接後管理要細保護好介面可採用套袋、遮陰、塗蠟、用塑膠條纏縛等措施處理,防止介面和接穗失水,影響癒合成活。

    及時剪砧早春芽接的,在嫁接時或在接芽成活後剪砧,可刺激接芽萌發。夏秋芽接的,翌春剪砧,有利於越冬。屬枝接的,如採用劈接、切接、插皮接,則在嫁接時斷砧;如採用切腹接、插皮腹接,當時可不剪砧,嫁接成活後再剪。

    鬆綁嫁接成活一段時間後,要放鬆捆紮用的塑膠帶,以免阻礙接穗生長,但要松而不棄,以防止颳風或人、畜撞壞。待接芽與砧木完全癒合後才解除捆紮物。

    除萌嫁接成活後,將砧木上的萌芽全部摘除,以促進新梢生長。

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